A2L class 🔥 R32 Refrigerant (1)

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 Why flammable refrigerants? Facts needs answers?

Refrigerants are a controlled substance due to pressures, temperatures, flammability & toxicity and must only be handled by qualified & certified refrigeration engineers. C&G 2079 (A1 class) & C&G 6187 (A2/A2L/A3)

Refrigerant Standards & Classification

There are 3 main Standards that governs the use of refrigerant, ISO817 & ASHRAE34 which classifies flammability & toxicity, while BS EN 378 sets safety requirements in the manufacture, design, construction, installation & maintenance of systems containing refrigerants.

There are 2 safety categories identified by ISO817 & ASHRAE34 which MUST be taken into account when handling or using refrigerants in any system: 

1) Flammability 🔥: There are THREE Flammability classifications

  • A1 class - Non-flammable  (Suppresses fire when leaked)
  • A2 and A2L class - Flammables🔥 (Propagate fire when leaked and can be Explosive💥 under pressure). 
  • A3 class - Highly flammable (Propagate🔥 fire and extremely Explosive💥 when leaked


2) Toxicity (acute - short exposures due to a leak): There are 3 classification B1 (Lo), B2 (Med), B3 (Hi). & In  BSEN 378-1 (ISO 5149-1) which relates to the displacement of Oxygen in occupied spaces in the event of refrigerant. leak,

There are local standards such as Health & Safety obligations & Standards, Advertising Standards etc that needs to apply to any products including domestic appliances, AC & Heat Pump equipment.


Manufacturers are required to be:  clearaccurateup to dateaccessible & UNAMBIGUOUS and offer SAFE legal CHOICES (see CCPI) 

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  Who Introduced A2L Flammable R32 as a single component and why?

A2L class flammable 🔥refrigerants (as a single component) were introduced to the DX cycle (cooling, heating & heat pump) in 2012 in Japan / 2015-16 in Europe by Daikin who hold over 300+ HFC32 (R32) patents, (to replace some A1 class with hi GWP e.g. R410A,).

However, they are flammable 🔥, short term, & require:  

  • extra safety costs,
  • extra legislation, 
  • different CE/UKCA that requires 3rd party certification and 
  • extra fire risk assessments per application.
  • extra engineers qualification

🔥A2L are marketed (Greenwashing2 to be low GWP if leaked but not clearly labelled Flammable🔥?

- Daikin also controlled the EU quota (by having 28 out of 200+ licenses).
- Daikin licenced the patents to other manufacturers
 and created a Business Cartel (such as Mitsubishi (both), Panasonic, LG, Samsung, Toshiba, etc) and forcing them to:  
a) To stop supply of A1 class R410A non-flammable  charged Single Splits (less than 3 kg charge >750 GWP) in the UK before EU supply ban on 1st January 2015,
b) Forbade them to mention CLEARLY that R32  is 🔥 flammable.

Why - Daikin introduced A2L class 🔥R32 as a single component?
Is it Commercial suicide (or ignorance of the fact that non-flammables A1 class have been around since 1928) ?  They: 

a) Falsely argue that it is environmently better as it has Low GWP<750  if leaked!, BUT, intentionally avoiding to mention of  being flammable🔥, when leaked., and it can also be explosive💥 (Diesel effect)

b) Falsely claim:  According to Daikin Chemicals page 12  
 "under Japan‘s High Pressure Gas Safety Act, it is not classified as a flammable gas?" BUT It does not state it is non-flammable?
Challenging International Standards ISO 817 & ASHRAE 34?

c) A2L class flammable🔥 R32 as a single component, is falsely claimed, that it can carry more energy (aprox 1-4% depending on temperatures) per wieght, than A1 class R410A? while Ignoring overall system performance (TGWP) (Space Air Safe Solutions) 

(click on images for more)

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  Flammability Test report by international recognised Underwriters Lab

UL* R32 Test Report 2021 highlights extra precautions required by the fire authority:

This report & test clearly establishes that R32 is flammable 🔥. BUT it 

 that equipment, clearly displays warnings when flammable🔥 materials are used or present!

Otherwise how on earth are FIREMEN/WOMEN to know? or USERS??
Remember 🔥 R32 is ODOURLESS .


 UL (Underwriters Laboratories)  UL Certification is an international testing lab certifying safety of products including fire tests of individual components. (note in the USA imported products must have UL Certification).
(Grenfell Tower? disaster was due to using flammable refrigerant in domestic refrigerator and as a blowing agent in the manufacture of insulation used in refrigerator casing & cladding). Hence CCPI Code

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  Is A2L class flammable   🔥R32 safe? and is it legal?

Duties, responsibilities and obligations when dealing/handling or specifying A2L class flammable🔥 refrigerants

A)    Manufacturer, Importer, Distributor legal OBLIGATIONS




B)  Engineer's Qualification

In addition to C&G 2708 or *F-gas qualification, handling A2/A2L class 🔥 (flammable) & A3 class (highly flammable🔥 and explosive💥) refrigerants requires additional certification C&G 6187-21

Google search local area for courses available

C&G 6187-21 The course covers handling all flammable refrigerants, including A3 Class flammable 🔥 & explosive 💥  HC's hydrocarbons (R270 Propylene, R290 Propane,R600a Isobutane), and A2/A2L class 🔥 flammable (HFC32).
It is a must for engineers working with any flammable / explosive refrigerants.

*"F-Gas certification (nothing to do with F-Gas Regulations) is primarily an Environmental & Safety qualification for engineers who install, maintain and service air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. UK F-Gas policies will follow International Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol"

"C)   Extra Installation Safety Materials & Recommendations A2L

EXTRA Materials & Labor: When A2L class 🔥Flammable.

Ventilation, alarms, pipe protection, electrical installation & equipment location.

Warning :The following manufacturers recommendations are not mentioned at point of sale or adverts or web.


D)   Extra End Users awareness

End Users MUST be clearly be Informed of EXTRA precautionery restrictions & risks (e.g. not have an open fire?,🔥R32 is odourless so you can not identify a leak (A3🔥💥 Isobutane or Butane have strong odours so you can identify there is a leak)

Note: The follwing manufacturers recomendations are not mentioned at point of sale or adverts or web.

Important: These manuals mixes 🔥 R32 flammable & R410A non-flammable without clear labelling on the indoor units for the user to identify and to follow? a shamble from professional manufacturers! 



See how Hong Kong deal with it 


E)    Is equipment charged with R32 LEGALLY Sold? 

The answer is NO as it is deceptivley and ambiguously marketed as:
a) It does not meet H&S 2016 no.1107
b) It does not meet Advertising Standards Authority ASA / CAP code
(nor any advertising authority in the world?)
c) It does not meet DSEAR or ATEX
e) Require considerable safety precaution and risk assesment per application
(see Space Air Solution) 

f)  Cartel (controlled by Daikin the patern holder) manufacturers refuse to acknowledge or display warnings on marketing & web materials. They refuse to meet CCPI Code 11 clauses.
 The Cartel stopped supply in the UK of legal & safe equipment (small splits) charged with R410A (an A1 class non-flammable) refrigerant before EU ban date of 1 Jan 2015 ignoring exemptions and UK Government policy

UK Government Actions regarding Manufacturers Compliance 



Why, manufacturers are allowed being ambiguouse?. See how legislators deal with it in 

Hong Kong  Singapore 

It is a legal right to know if materials & equipment contains refrigerant that is :
A1 class  non-flammable or A2L or A3 class 🔥 flammable or 💥 explosive 


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"Life, in any form, is more important than commercial deception & false claims"

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Refrigerant classification
There are over 300 types of refrigerants in THREE Safety Classifications with regards to flammability, in accordance with ISO 817:2014 (E) & ASHRAE34 International Standard clearly indicate that: 
               A1 class non-flammable, A2/A2L flammable🔥 & A3 Highly flammable/Explosive 🔥💥
2 Greenwashing
"Greenwashing is a deceptive form of marketing that claims a company's products, policies and goals are environmentally friendly and therefore do less damage to nature, with an underlying purpose to increase profits"
3 Suuply Chain (AC & Refrigeration Industry): 
"The supply chain in the AC & Refrigeration Industry includes any diciplne who handles any materials including flammable materials that requires extra risk assesment 
Local Authorities, Trade & Industry Associations (ACRIB, BRA, HEVAC, BESA, IOR, CIBSE, RIBA, HHIC, ACTUATE), Distributors & Wholesalers, Publishers, Advertising Agencies, Insurance companies, Government Departments,Transport, Building Users & Owners need to ONLY use, specify or support manufacturers who comply and abide by the 11 clauses of the CCPI code, to ensure their customer's safety. and the supply chain credibility & integrity. Manufactures should easily embrace The Code to confirm their published or unpublished corporate ethical claims
5Business Cartel ; Daikin Industries/ Chemical have patented (aprox3 00+ patents) A2L flammable 🔥R32 refrigerant and components used in small splits air conditioning equipment and licensed the patents to Japanese manufacturers (such as Mitsubishi Electric/Heavy, Fugitsu, Toshiba, etc), Korean manufacturers (LG & Samsung) & Chinese AC manufacturers, conditional on withdrawing current R410A non-flammable in small splits (refrigerant charge less than 3kg) and not mentioning that R32 is flammable 🔥 in their promotional materials or website?. This has been applied to UK & and some EU but not the rest of the world. Daikin is an International manufacturer and claim meeting International standards & safety obligations?. 

R410A is an A1 class non-flammable refrigerant is the dominant refrigerant in the world while 🔥 R32 has been since 2015   

6Public Buildings means any building having free entrance or permissible for entry to the common masses, then that building will be called public buildings e.g. Offices, Restaurants, apartments, shops, Hospitals, Hotels, Supermarkets, Sports centres and Care homes, etc

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